Two-phase inclusions in sapphire, Sri Lanka
Spinel crystal in dolomite marble, Burma
Inclusions of hematite in feldspar (sunstone), India
Bubbles and swirls in moldavite (natural glass)
Inclusions of rock crystal and rutile needles in quartz, Brazil, polarised light
Inclusion of apatite in ruby from Tanzania
Two-phase inclusions in tourmaline from Namibia
Inclusions of hematite in aquamarine, Tanzania


The Swiss Gemmological Society has the following objectives:

  • To promote the gemmological knowledge of its members
  • To extend this knowledge through annual training and to pass on the benefits thereof to the gemstone and pearl trades in the industry
  • Protect the interest of the purchasing public
  • Maintain ethical business practices, combat unfair competition and comply with the international guidelines of the diamond, gemstone and pearl trades