Inclusion of apatite in ruby from Tanzania
Agate from Anzi, Maroc
Two-Phase inclusions and rutile needles in rock crystal from Brazil
Inclusions of anatase crystal and rutile fibres in rock crystal from Brazil
Inclusions of fossil plant debris in opal from Wollo, Ethiopia
Fire opal, Mexico
Fluid inclusions in quartz with bituminous daughter minerals, China
Inclusions of rutile (dark crystal and fine needles) and clusters of zircon grains in umbalite garnet, Tanzania


The Swiss Gemmological Society has the following objectives:

  • To promote the gemmological knowledge of its members
  • To extend this knowledge through annual training and to pass on the benefits thereof to the gemstone and pearl trades in the industry
  • Protect the interest of the purchasing public
  • Maintain ethical business practices, combat unfair competition and comply with the international guidelines of the diamond, gemstone and pearl trades