Inclusions of rutile (dark crystal and fine needles) and clusters of zircon grains in umbalite garnet, Tanzania
Two-Phase inclusions and rutile needles in rock crystal from Brazil
Structure in a healing fissure in topaz from Brazil
Inclusions of hematite in feldspar (sunstone), India
Partially etched diamond crystal
Inclusions of rock crystal and rutile needles in quartz, Brazil, polarised light
Natural etching structure on a crystal face of diamond (trigons), polarised light
Inclusions of chrysotile fibres in demantoide garnet from Ural Mountains, Russia


The Swiss Gemmological Society has the following objectives:

  • To promote the gemmological knowledge of its members
  • To extend this knowledge through annual training and to pass on the benefits thereof to the gemstone and pearl trades in the industry
  • Protect the interest of the purchasing public
  • Maintain ethical business practices, combat unfair competition and comply with the international guidelines of the diamond, gemstone and pearl trades